Translating:Blockly

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Blockly.png

Blockly (repository) is an open source project to help people, especially children, learn to program computers. Blockly programs consist of connected "blocks" of code. It consists of:

  • an extensible visual programming environment
  • a set of educational games for children (or others)

Internationalization, being gender-neutral, and being accessible in a variety of cultures are key priorities.

Contacts: Sean Lip, NeilFraser.

General Translation Notes

Tense

Our target audience is individual or small groups of children. Please use gender-neutral forms if possible in your language.

Style

The tone is informal and conversational, and we prefer short phrases to long ones, such as "if path ahead" instead of "if there is a path ahead". Translations need not be exact.

Rigor

It is more important that language be clear to beginners than that it matches what experienced programmers use. For example, we use the term "text" instead of "string", and we use "list" instead of "array". A more technical example is that we use 1-based indexing instead of the more common 0-based indexing.

Consistency

Consistency is important. In English, for example, we have gone back and forth on whether to use the term "function" or "procedure". What is more important than which term is chosen is that the same term is used throughout. See Blockly Terms for how key Blockly terms appearing in multiple messages have been translated (if at all) into your language. If agreement among translators cannot be reached, please ask for help.

Symbols

If any mathematical (or other) symbols are inappropriate in your language but are not offered for customization, please let us know.

Special terms

Blockly
Our recommendation is that the name of the project be left as is in languages using the Latin alphabet and that it be transliterated in other languages, possibly in parentheses, such as "Blockly (Блoкли)" in Russian.
block
Blocks in Blockly programs should be translated as children's building blocks. If that doesn't work in your language, "puzzle piece" is also acceptable.

Plural

Plural formatting is not supported.

Ordinal numbers

Some blocks refer to the nth item in a list or piece of text, where n is an arbitrary number or expression. In English, such a number is preceded by "#", which is included in the messages that precede the space in which the number would go:

Blockly-in-text-number.png try out block

Hungarian requires that such numbers or expressions be followed by a dot ("."). A special message ORDINAL_NUMBER_SUFFIX has the value "." for Hungarian and is automatically placed after each ordinal number (but not after the words for "first" or "last", which are already ordinal).

Blockly-in-text-number-hu.png

The Hungarian block above also includes a "tail" (final piece of text after the last block). Most languages do not require support for ordinal numbers or for tails, in which case those messages should be the empty string.

The Blockly Language

All of the tutorials and applications use a subset or all of the Blockly language, which consists of blocks representing aspects of programming languages, such as control structure, creation of variables and procedures, and library routines. You can play with the blocks at https://blockly-demo.appspot.com/static/demos/code/index.html

The toolbox, workspace, and categories

The below picture shows:

  • the toolbox (in grey), which is where the user gets blocks.
  • the workspace (in white), which is where the user places blocks to build the program.

Blockly-canvas-toolbox-closed.png

In the above picture, the toolbox is closed, and only category names (such as "Control" and "Logic") can be seen. One block is in the workspace. In the below picture, the user has clicked on "Control", causing the category to be expanded and the blocks shown. This screen also has tabs to show the JavaScript, Python, and XML associated with the program in the workspace. Currently, the "Blocks" tab is selected.

Blockly-canvas-toolbox-open.png

Messages associated with blocks

There are many different types of messages associated with blocks, illustrated in the pictures below:

  • Block text, such as "colour with" in the below blocks.
  • Block input text, such as "red", "green", and "blue", where other blocks can be attached.
  • Tooltip, displayed when the user hovers the mouse over a block, shown in a yellow background, as in the picture below. The translator should not insert newline characters ('\n' or <br/>), which are added automatically. Tooltips should be full sentences.
  • Context menu, displayed when the user right-clicks on a block, shown in a white background. These are discussed more below.
  • URL, which is opened in another tab when the user clicks on the "Help" context menu item. If the link is to Wikipedia, the easiest way to translate it is by seeing if there is a corresponding Wikipedia change in the target language. If none can be found easily, it is fine to leave the URL untranslated.
  • dropdown menu, one of multiple choices on a drop-down menu. Please read Translating:Blockly#Drop-Down_Menus.

Blockly-color-with.png

context menus

Note that the block below is highlighted (surrounded by a thin orange outline), indicating that the user has selected it. Clicking on any of the context menu items affects the highlighted block. Some items, such as "Duplicate", "Disable", and "Delete" also affect any contained blocks (such as the number 20 in this example).

Blockly-context-menu.png

Selecting Inline Inputs transforms the block to the following form:

Blockly-inline.png

Restoring the default display is done through the context menu item External Inputs (not shown).

Blockly-color-with.png

infrequent message types

There are additional types of messages associated with a few blocks:

  • grammar, which is currently only used for handling ordinal numbers.
  • dropdown choice, such as "Rename variable..." and "New variable..." in the below left picture, which allow the user to change the name of the variable named "item" or create a new variable.
  • prompt, as in the text 'Rename all %1 variables..." in the below right picture.
  • default name, for the default variable name "item", which can be changed to something more specific by the user.

Blockly-variable-item.png Blockly-variable-rename.png

Reconfiguring blocks

if blocks

A few blocks can be reconfigured. For example, an "if" block can be reconfigured to have any number of "else if" sections. The user makes such modifications by clicking on the star (formerly a "+" sign) in the upper left corner of the block, which opens a configuration tool, shown below:

Blockly-if-configuration.png

Any number of "else if" blocks, and up to one "else" block, may be added to the "if" block.

function definitions

Similarly, any number of inputs (also known as "parameters") can be added to function definitions:

Blockly-function-mutator.png

This is an advanced feature, and it is not necessary to understand it in order to do translations.

Blockly Games

Each game has its own messages. There are also messages of the following types that are used by multiple applications:

  • alert, pop-up error messages, such as if the user tries to retrieve a program that cannot be found.
  • category, the names of categories (such as "Math" and Text") into which blocks are organized.
  • variable name, such as the second occurrences of "text" and "list" in the below picture. These are the default names for variables containing text and lists, respectively.

Default-variables.png

Puzzle

The introductory puzzle teaches people how to use the blocks. It is the easiest to translate, as it contains no technical terms.

Maze

The maze game has the user guide a character to a goal. It is the most popular Blockly game.

Blockly-maze.png

Maze-Specific Terms

level
Tutorials are divided into numbered levels, like the levels in a video game. The first level of each tutorial is 1. Harder levels have higher numbers.
player
Term for the character moved by the user's commands. This was originally "Pegman", but we added skins to change the character's appearance. We chose the English-language term "player" over "character" or "avatar", because "player" is simpler and shorter.


Messages associated with blocks

  • warning: message conveying important information to user (namely how many blocks they have left).
  • alert: message in popup window either congratulating the user for completing a level or notifying them of an error.
  • instructions: one or more short sentences introducing the current level. In the screenshot at the beginning of this section, the instructions are: "A program is a sequence of blocks. Stack a couple of 'move forward' blocks together to help me reach the goal". The word 'program' refers to a computer program, and the words for 'stack' and 'blocks' should be the same as for stacking children's blocks. Use the imperative verb form appropriate for speaking to a child, gender unspecified. If no gender-neutral singular/familiar form exists but a gender-neutral plural/formal form exists, use that instead.
  • dropdown: described below.

Drop-Down Menus

Related instructions (such as "turn left" and "turn right") are represented by a single block that contains a drop-down menu as shown in the image below. The translator does not need to do anything special for words (such as "turn") to be pulled out of drop-down menus; common left or right substrings delimited with spaces are automatically recognized and extracted.

Blockly-turn-left-right.png

In some languages, such as Vietnamese, it would not be appropriate to extract common substrings. If the translator set Maze.turnLeft to "quay qua trái" and Maze.turnRight to "quay qua phải", this dropdown menu would be created, which would look wrong to a Vietnamese speaker:

Blockly-vi-turn-wrong.png

Instead, the translator should put the non-breaking space character (\u00A0) between words to prevent either from being extracted separately. In our example, the translator would set Maze.turnLeft to "quay qua\u00A0trái" and "Maze.turnRight" to "quay qua\u00A0phải", which gives the correct dropdown menu:

Blockly-vi-turn-correct.png

In languages without spaces between words, such as Chinese, the translator should insert a space where a break should occur. For more detail, see the Blockly documentation on drop-down menus.

Turtle Graphics

Blockly-turtle.png

The Turtle game enables users to draw pictures through the use of "turtle graphics", which originated with the Logo programming language. With turtle graphics, the user directs an imaginary turtle (represented as a green circle) to move, turn, change its pen width, etc., in order to draw a picture. As with all of our applications, translators are encouraged to try it out.

See discussion above about dropdown menus.

Exports

Languages with translation completion less than 25 % are not committed to version control. If the project consists of multiple message groups, the limit is applied to each group separately.

Translation updates are exported to version control every Monday and Thursday.

Translation statistics

The numbers shown below are cached and may not show the latest status. See this stats page for always up to date statistics.

Language Messages Untranslated Completion Outdated
ab: Abkhazian 601 251 58% 1%
ace: Achinese 601 560 6% 0%
ar: Arabic 601 68 88% 2%
ast: Asturian 601 482 19% 0%
atj: Atikamekw 601 576 4% 0%
az: Azerbaijani 601 140 76% 0%
azb: South Azerbaijani 601 483 19% 1%
ba: Bashkir 601 305 49% 1%
bcc: Southern Balochi 601 262 56% 1%
be: Belarusian 601 64 89% 3%
be-tarask: Belarusian (Taraškievica orthography) 601 0 100% 0%
bg: Bulgarian 601 66 89% 3%
bgn: Western Balochi 601 580 3% 0%
bn: Bangla 601 210 65% 3%
br: Breton 601 22 96% 3%
bs: Bosnian 601 587 2% 0%
btm: Mandailing 601 522 13% 0%
ca: Catalan 601 207 65% 1%
ce: Chechen 601 551 8% 1%
ckb: Central Kurdish 601 530 11% 1%
co: Corsican 601 587 2% 0%
cs: Czech 601 83 86% 3%
csb: Kashubian 601 538 10% 1%
da: Danish 601 0 100% 0%
de: German 601 0 100% 0%
diq: Zazaki 601 292 51% 0%
dty: Doteli 601 503 16% 0%
ee: Ewe 601 531 11% 1%
el: Greek 601 0 100% 0%
en-gb: British English 601 379 36% 1%
eo: Esperanto 601 294 51% 1%
es: Spanish 601 29 95% 2%
et: Estonian 601 195 67% 0%
eu: Basque 601 331 44% 1%
fa: Persian 601 98 83% 1%
fi: Finnish 601 33 94% 2%
fr: French 601 0 100% 0%
fur: Friulian 601 554 7% 1%
fy: Western Frisian 601 502 16% 1%
gl: Galician 601 308 48% 1%
glk: Gilaki 601 587 2% 0%
gn: Guarani 601 515 14% 0%
gom-deva: Goan Konkani (Devanagari script) 601 578 3% 0%
gor: Gorontalo 601 502 16% 1%
hak: Hakka Chinese 601 562 6% 1%
he: Hebrew 601 183 69% 1%
hi: Hindi 601 115 80% 1%
hif-latn: Fiji Hindi (Latin script) 601 534 11% 0%
hr: Croatian 601 556 7% 0%
hrx: Hunsrik 601 237 60% 1%
hsb: Upper Sorbian 601 585 2% 1%
hu: Hungarian 601 53 91% 3%
hy: Armenian 601 529 11% 0%
hyw: արեւմտահայերէն 601 539 10% 0%
ia: Interlingua 601 188 68% 2%
id: Indonesian 601 91 84% 3%
inh: Ingush 601 476 20% 1%
is: Icelandic 601 76 87% 3%
it: Italian 601 27 95% 0%
ja: Japanese 601 60 90% 3%
kab: Kabyle 601 14 97% 2%
kbd-cyrl: Kabardian (Cyrillic script) 601 426 29% 1%
km: Khmer 601 571 4% 1%
kn: Kannada 601 490 18% 1%
ko: Korean 601 47 92% 2%
krl: Karelian 601 501 16% 0%
ksh: Colognian 601 555 7% 1%
ku-latn: Kurdish (Latin script) 601 539 10% 0%
kum: Kumyk 601 501 16% 0%
ky: Kyrgyz 601 536 10% 1%
lag: Langi 601 577 3% 0%
lb: Luxembourgish 601 377 37% 0%
lez: Lezghian 601 576 4% 0%
lfn: Lingua Franca Nova 601 581 3% 0%
lki: Laki 601 172 71% 1%
lo: Lao 601 515 14% 0%
lrc: Northern Luri 601 408 32% 1%
lt: Lithuanian 601 80 86% 1%
lv: Latvian 601 104 82% 3%
mg: Malagasy 601 509 15% 0%
mk: Macedonian 601 408 32% 1%
mr: Marathi 601 568 5% 1%
ms: Malay 601 110 81% 3%
my: Burmese 601 382 36% 3%
nah: Nāhuatl 601 578 3% 0%
nan: Min Nan Chinese 601 568 5% 0%
nb: Norwegian Bokmål 601 18 97% 3%
ne: Nepali 601 529 11% 1%
nl: Dutch 601 0 100% 0%
nqo: N’Ko 601 583 2% 0%
oc: Occitan 601 248 58% 1%
olo: Livvi-Karelian 601 500 16% 0%
pa: Punjabi 601 498 17% 1%
pl: Polish 601 49 91% 2%
pms: Piedmontese 601 0 100% 0%
pnb: Western Punjabi 601 585 2% 0%
ps: Pashto 601 516 14% 0%
pt: Portuguese 601 0 100% 0%
pt-br: Brazilian Portuguese 601 0 100% 0%
qqq: Message documentation 601 1 99% 1%
ro: Romanian 601 230 61% 1%
ru: Russian 601 0 100% 0%
sat: Santali 601 546 9% 0%
sc: Sardinian 601 110 81% 3%
sco: Scots 601 514 14% 1%
sd: Sindhi 601 368 38% 0%
sdh: Southern Kurdish 601 577 3% 0%
shn: Shan 601 501 16% 1%
si: Sinhala 601 561 6% 0%
sk: Slovak 601 57 90% 3%
skr-arab: Saraiki (Arabic script) 601 441 26% 0%
sl: Slovenian 601 67 88% 3%
sq: Albanian 601 23 96% 3%
sr-ec: Serbian (Cyrillic script) 601 45 92% 2%
sr-el: Serbian (Latin script) 601 58 90% 3%
sv: Swedish 601 0 100% 0%
sw: Swahili 601 564 6% 1%
ta: Tamil 601 219 63% 2%
tcy: Tulu 601 201 66% 0%
te: Telugu 601 470 21% 1%
th: Thai 601 22 96% 3%
tl: Tagalog 601 481 19% 1%
tr: Turkish 601 0 100% 0%
ug-arab: Uyghur (Arabic script) 601 468 22% 1%
uk: Ukrainian 601 0 100% 0%
ur: Urdu 601 440 26% 1%
vi: Vietnamese 601 87 85% 3%
xmf: Mingrelian 601 488 18% 0%
zh-hans: Simplified Chinese 601 0 100% 0%
zh-hant: Traditional Chinese 601 0 100% 0%
All 130 languages together 78,130 40,474 48% 1%

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