User:Raymond/Akkadian

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Text copied from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akkadian_cuneiform#Akkadian_cuneiform for testing purposes.


At this stage, the former pictograms were reduced to a high level of abstraction, and were composed of only five basic wedge shapes: horizontal, vertical, two diagonals and the Winkelhaken impressed vertically by the tip of the stylus. The signs exemplary of these basic wedges are

  • Aล  (B001, U+12038) ๐’€ธ: horizontal;
  • DIล  (B748, U+12079) ๐’น: vertical;
  • GE23, DIล  tenรป (B575, U+12039) ๐’€น: downward diagonal;
  • GE22 (B647, U+1203A) ๐’€บ: upward diagonal;
  • U (B661, U+1230B) ๐’Œ‹: the Winkelhaken.

Except for the Winkelhaken which is tail-less, the length of the wedges' tails could vary as required for sign composition.

Syllabary

The tables below show signs used for simple syllables of the form CV or VC. As used for the Sumerian language, the cuneiform script was in principle capable of distinguishing 14 consonants, transliterated as

b, d, g, แธซ, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, ลก, t, z

as well as four vowel qualities, a, e, i, u. The Akkadian language needed to distinguish its emphatic series, q, แนฃ, แนญ, adopting various "superfluous" Sumerian signs for the purpose (e.g. qe=KIN, qu=KUM, qi=KIN, แนฃa=ZA, แนฃe=Zร, แนญur=DUR etc.Template:Clarify) Hittite as it adopted the Akkadian cuneiform further introduced signs for the glide w, e.g. wa=PI, wi5=GEล TIN) as well as a ligature I.A for ya.

-a -e -i -u
a ๐’€€,

รก ๐’€‰

e ๐’‚Š,

รฉ ๐’‚

i ๐’„ฟ,

รญ=Iร ๐’Š

u ๐’Œ‹,

รบ ๐’Œ‘

b- ba ๐’€,

bรก=PA ๐’‰บ,
bร =Eล  ๐’‚ 

be=BAD ๐’,

bรฉ=BI ๐’‰,
bรจ=NI ๐’‰Œ

bi ๐’‰,

bรญ=NE ๐’‰ˆ,
bรฌ=PI ๐’‰ฟ

bu ๐’,

bรบ=KASKAL ๐’†œ,
bรน=Pร™ ๐’…ค

d- da ๐’•,

dรก=TA ๐’‹ซ

de=DI ๐’ฒ,

dรฉ ,
dรจ=NE ๐’‰ˆ

di ๐’ฒ,

dรญ=Tร ๐’„ญ

du ๐’บ,

dรบ=TU ๐’Œ…,
dรน=GAG ๐’†•,
du4=TUM ๐’Œˆ

g- ga ๐’‚ต,

gรก ๐’‚ท

ge=GI ๐’„€,

gรฉ=KID ๐’†ค,
gรจ=DIล  ๐’น

gi ๐’„€,

gรญ=KID ๐’†ค,
gรฌ=DIล  ๐’น,
gi4 ๐’„„,
gi5=KI ๐’† 

gu ๐’„–,

gรบ ๐’„˜,
gรน=KA ๐’…—,
gu4 ๐’„ž,
gu5=KU ๐’†ช,
gu6=NAG ๐’…˜,
gu7 ๐’…ฅ

แธซ- แธซa ๐’„ฉ,

แธซรก=แธชI.A ๐’„ญ๐’€€,
แธซร =U ๐’Œ‹,
แธซa4=แธชI ๐’„ญ

แธซe=แธชI ๐’„ญ,

แธซรฉ=GAN ๐’ƒถ

แธซi ๐’„ญ,

แธซรญ=GAN ๐’ƒถ

แธซu ๐’„ท
k- ka ๐’…—,

kรก ๐’†,
kร =GA ๐’‚ต

ke=KI ๐’† ,

kรฉ=GI ๐’„€

ki ๐’† ,

kรญ=GI ๐’„€

ku ๐’†ช,

kรบ=GU7 ๐’…ฅ,
kรน ๐’†ฌ,
ku4 ๐’†ญ

l- la ๐’†ท,

lรก=LAL ๐’‡ฒ,
lร =NU ๐’‰ก

le=LI ๐’‡ท,

lรฉ=NI ๐’‰Œ

li ๐’‡ท,

lรญ=NI ๐’‰Œ

lu ๐’‡ป,

lรบ ๐’‡ฝ

m- ma ๐’ˆ ,

mรก ๐’ˆฃ

me ๐’ˆจ,

mรฉ=MI ๐’ˆช,
mรจ ๐’€ž/๐’… 

mi ๐’ˆช,

mรญ=MUNUS ๐’Šฉ,
mรฌ=ME ๐’ˆจ

mu ๐’ˆฌ,

mรบ=SAR ๐’Šฌ

n- na ๐’ˆพ,

nรก ๐’ˆฟ,
nร =AG ๐’€,
na4 ("NI.UD") ๐’‰Œ๐’Œ“

ne ๐’‰ˆ,

nรฉ=NI ๐’‰Œ

ni ๐’‰Œ,

nรญ=IM ๐’‰Ž

nu ๐’‰ก,

nรบ=Nร ๐’ˆฟ

p- pa ๐’‰บ,

pรก=BA ๐’€

pe=PI ๐’‰ฟ,

pรฉ=BI ๐’‰

pi ๐’‰ฟ,

pรญ=BI ๐’‰,
pรฌ=BAD ๐’

pu=BU ๐’,

pรบ=TรšL ๐’‡ฅ,
pรน ๐’…ค

r- ra ๐’Š,

rรก=DU ๐’บ

re=RI ๐’Š‘,

rรฉ=URU ๐’Œท

ri ๐’Š‘,

rรญ=URU ๐’Œท

ru ๐’Š’,

rรบ=GAG ๐’†•,
rรน=Aล  ๐’€ธ

s- sa ๐’Š“,

sรก=DI ๐’ฒ,
sร =ZA ๐’,
sa4 ("แธชU.Nร") ๐’„ท๐’ˆพ

se=SI ๐’‹›,

sรฉ=ZI ๐’ฃ

si ๐’‹›,

sรญ=ZI ๐’ฃ

su ๐’‹ข,

sรบ=ZU ๐’ช,
sรน=SUD ๐’‹ค,
su4 ๐’‹œ

ลก- ลกa ๐’Šญ,

ลกรก=NรG ๐’ผ,
ลกร  ๐’Šฎ

ลกe ๐’Šบ,

ลกรฉ ,
ลกรจ ๐’‚ 

ลกi=IGI ๐’…†,

ลกรญ=SI ๐’‹›

ลกu ๐’‹—,

ลกรบ ๐’‹™,
ลกรน=ล รˆ ๐’‚ ,
ลกu4=U ๐’Œ‹

t- ta ๐’‹ซ,

tรก=DA ๐’•

te ๐’‹ผ,

tรฉ=Tร ๐’Šน

ti ๐’‹พ,

tรญ ๐’Šน,
tรฌ=DIM ๐’ด,
ti4=DI ๐’ฒ

tu ๐’Œ…,

tรบ=UD ๐’Œ“,
tรน=DU ๐’บ

z- za ๐’,

zรก=NA4 ๐’‰Œ๐’Œ“

ze=ZI ๐’ฃ,

zรฉ=ZรŒ ๐’ข

zi ๐’ฃ,

zรญ ๐’ข,
zรฌ ๐’ฅ

zu ๐’ช,

zรบ=KA ๐’…—

a- e- i- u-
a ๐’€€,

รก ๐’€‰

e ๐’‚Š,

รฉ ๐’‚

i ๐’„ฟ,

รญ=Iร ๐’Š

u ๐’Œ‹,

รบ ๐’Œ‘

-b ab ๐’€Š,

รกb ๐’€–

eb=IB ๐’…,

รฉb=TUM ๐’Œˆ

ib ๐’…,

รญb=TUM ๐’Œˆ

ub ๐’Œ’,

รบb=ล รˆ ๐’‚ 

-d ad ๐’€œ,

รกd ๐’„‰

ed=ร ๐’€‰ id=ร ๐’€‰,

รญd=A.ENGUR ๐’€€๐’‡‰

ud ๐’Œ“,

รบd=รล  ๐’€พ

-g ag ๐’€,

รกg ๐’‰˜

eg=IG ๐’……,

รฉg=E ๐’‚Š

ig ๐’……,

รญg=E ๐’‚Š

ug ๐’ŠŒ
-แธซ aแธซ ๐’„ด,

รกแธซ=ล Eล  ๐’‹€

eแธซ=Aแธช ๐’„ด iแธซ=Aแธช ๐’„ด uแธซ=Aแธช ๐’„ด,

รบแธซ ๐’Œ”

-k ak=AG ๐’€ ek=IG ๐’…… ik=IG ๐’…… uk=UG ๐’ŠŒ
-l al ๐’€ ,

รกl=ALAM ๐’€ฉ

el ๐’‚–,

รฉl=IL ๐’…‹

il ๐’…‹,

รญl ๐’…

ul File:Cuneiform UL.png,

รบl=NU ๐’‰ก

-m am ๐’„ /๐’‚”,

รกm=รG ๐’‰˜

em=IM ๐’…Ž im ๐’…Ž,

รญm=KAล 4 ๐’ฝ

um ๐’Œ,

รบm=UD ๐’Œ“

-n an ๐’€ญ en ๐’‚—,

รฉn,
รจn=LI ๐’‡ท

in ๐’…”,

in4=EN ๐’‚—,
in5=NIN ๐’Šฉ๐’Œ†

un ๐’Œฆ,

รบn=U ๐’Œ‹

-p ap=AB ๐’€Š ep=IB ,

รฉp=TUM ๐’Œˆ

ip=IB ๐’…,

รญp=TUM ๐’Œˆ

up=UB ๐’Œ’,

รบp=ล รˆ ๐’‚ 

-r ar ๐’…ˆ,

รกr=UB ๐’Œ’

er=IR ๐’…• ir ๐’…•,

รญp=A.IGI ๐’€€๐’…†

ur ๐’Œจ,

รบr ๐’Œซ

-s as=AZ ๐’Š es=GIล  ๐’„‘,

รฉs=Eล  ๐’‚ 

is=GIล  ๐’„‘,

รญs=Eล  ๐’‚ 

us=UZ,

รบs=Uล  ๐’‘

-ลก aลก ๐’€ธ,

รกลก ๐’€พ

eลก ๐’Œ/๐’,

รฉลก=ล รˆ ๐’‚ 

iลก ๐’…–,

รญลก=KASKAL ๐’†œ

uลก ๐’‘,

รบลก๐’—=BAD ๐’

-t at=AD ๐’€œ,

รกt=GรR gunรป ๐’„‰

et=ร ๐’€‰ it=ร ๐’€‰ ut=UD ๐’Œ“,

รบt=รล  ๐’€พ

-z az ๐’Š ez=GIล  ๐’„‘,

รฉz=Eล  ๐’‚ 

iz= GIล  ๐’„‘,

รญz=Iล  ๐’…–

uz Cuneiform UZ.png,

รบz=Uล  ๐’‘,
รนz ๐’š